Controlled Substances at California Wildlife Areas

Controlled Substances at California Wildlife Areas and illegal drugs at California Wildlife Areas

In general, it’s illegal to use, be under the influence of, or possess controlled substances at California Wildlife Areas. On this page, you’ll find (1) general rules and exceptions, (2) definitions of controlled substances, (3) consequences for a violation, and (4) specific controlled substances (e.g. codeine, hydrocodone, methamphetamine, morphine, and oxycodone). You’ll also find links to definitions, supporting law, and other useful information.


General Rules & Exceptions

Controlled substances at California Wildlife Areas
Gray Lodge Wildlife Area

In general, regulations prohibit the use of “illicit” controlled substances at California Wildlife Areas. The same is true at all other Department Land. It’s also illegal to possess or be under the influence of those substances. There are only two exceptions to the general rule: (1) medical authorization and (b) legal authorization for legitimate use. See 14 CCR § 550(x)(3).


Definitions of Controlled Substances at California Wildlife Areas

Controlled substances at California Wildlife Areas and Ecological Reserves
Baldwin Lake Ecological Reserve

“Illicit” controlled substances at California Wildlife Areas, or any other Department Land, are those where (a) no medical authorization exists and (b) no legal authorization allows possession for legitimate use of the substance. See 14 CCR § 550(x)(3). However, CDFW regulations don’t provide a definition for “illicit controlled substances” or refer to controlling laws.

Per the World Health Organization, “illicit drugs” include “amphetamine-type stimulants, cannabis, cocaine, heroin and other opioids, and MDMA (ecstasy).” (See Ch. 13, Illegal Drug Use, Section 1.1, Exposure Variable, Substances Included). In addition, the Uniform Controlled Substance Act prohibits use of “controlled substances” and refers to them in Health and Safety Code § 11550(a) below. NOTE: link to them from Specific Controlled Substances in our next Section.

(a) No person shall use, or be under the influence of any controlled substance which is (1) specified in subdivision (b), (c), or (e), or paragraph (1) of subdivision (f) of Section 11054, specified in paragraph (14), (15), (21), (22), or (23) of subdivision (d) of Section 11054, specified in subdivision (b) or (c) of Section 11055, or specified in paragraph (1) or (2) of subdivision (d) or in paragraph (3) of subdivision (e) of Section 11055, or (2) a narcotic drug classified in Schedule III, IV, or V, except when administered by or under the direction of a person licensed by the state to dispense, prescribe, or administer controlled substances.


Specific Controlled Substances

Follow the links below to subsections and paragraphs referenced in Health and Safety Code § 11550(a) that identify “illicit” controlled substances at California Wildlife Areas and Firearm violations.

Firearm violations for using controlled substances at California Wildlife Areas
Controlled substances while using firearms.

Violations at Wildlife Areas

Violations for Using Controlled Substances at California Wildlife Areas.
Violations for Using “Illicit” Controlled Substances at California Wildlife Areas

If a visitor possesses, uses, or is under the influence of “illicit” controlled substances at California Wildlife Areas, or any other Department Land, he or she could be cited for a violation and ejected per Section 550(c)(3). See 14 CCR § 550(x)(3)Warning shot!! In general, it’s a crime to carry a loaded Firearm while under the influence of “cocaine, cocaine base, heroin, methamphetamine, or phencyclidine.” Violations are “punishable by imprisonment in a county jail for not exceeding one year or in state prison.” See Health and Safety Code § 11550(e).


Health & Safety Code § 11054(d)

Hallucinogenic substances: Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation, which contains any quantity of the following hallucinogenic substances, or which contains any of its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of those salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation (for purposes of this subdivision only, the term “isomer” includes the optical, position, and geometric isomers):

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(14) Mescaline.

(15) Peyote–Meaning all parts of the plant presently classified botanically as Lophophora williamsii Lemaire, whether growing or not, the seeds thereof, any extract from any part of the plant, and every compound, manufacture, salts, derivative, mixture, or preparation of the plant, its seeds or extracts (interprets 21 U.S.C. Sec. 812(c), Schedule 1(c)(12)).

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(21) Ethylamine analog of phencyclidine–Some trade or other names: N-ethyl-1-phenylcyclohexylamine, (1-phenylcyclohexyl) ethylamine, N-(1-phenylcyclohexyl) ethylamine, cyclohexamine, PCE.

(22) Pyrrolidine analog of phencyclidine–Some trade or other names: 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)-pyrrolidine, PCP, PHP.

(23) Thiophene analog of phencyclidine–Some trade or other names: 1-[1-(2 thienyl)-cyclohexyl]-piperidine, 2-thienyl analog of phencyclidine, TPCP, TCP.

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Health & Safety Code § 11054(f)

Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its isomers:

(1) Cocaine base.

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Health & Safety Code § 11055(b)

(a) The controlled substances listed in this section are included in Schedule II.

(b) Any of the following substances, except those narcotic drugs listed in other schedules, whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by combination of extraction and chemical synthesis:

(1) Opium, opiate, and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of opium or opiate, with the exception of naloxone hydrochloride (N-allyl-14-hydroxy-nordihydromorphinone hydrochloride), but including the following:

(A) Raw opium.

(B) Opium extracts.

(C) Opium fluid extracts.

(D) Powdered opium.

(E) Granulated opium.

(F) Tincture of opium.

(G) Codeine.

(H) Ethylmorphine.

(I) Hydrocodone.

(J) Hydromorphone.

(K) Metopon.

(L) Morphine.

(M) Oxycodone.

(N) Oxymorphone.

(O) Thebaine.

(2) Any salt, compound, isomer, or derivative, whether natural or synthetic, of the substances referred to in paragraph (1), but not including the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium.

(3) Opium poppy and poppy straw.

(4) Coca leaves and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of coca leaves, but not including decocainized coca leaves or extractions which do not contain cocaine or ecgonine.

(5) Concentrate of poppy straw (the crude extract of poppy straw in either liquid, solid, or powder form which contains the phenanthrene alkaloids of the opium poppy).

(6) Cocaine, except as specified in Section 11054.

(7) Ecgonine, whether natural or synthetic, or any salt, isomer, derivative, or preparation thereof.

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Health & Safety Code § 11055(c)

Opiates. Unless specifically excepted or unless in another schedule, any of the following opiates, including its isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers whenever the existence of those isomers, esters, ethers, and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation, dextrorphan and levopropoxyphene excepted:

(1) Alfentanyl.

(2) Alphaprodine.

(3) Anileridine.

(4) Bezitramide.

(5) Bulk dextropropoxyphene (nondosage forms).

(6) Dihydrocodeine.

(7) Diphenoxylate.

(8) Fentanyl.

(9) Isomethadone.

(10) Levoalphacetylmethadol, also known as levo-alpha-acetylmethadol, levomethadyl acetate, or LAAM. This substance is authorized for the treatment of narcotic addicts under federal law (see Part 291 (commencing with Section 291.501) and Part 1308 (commencing with Section 1308.01) of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations).

(11) Levomethorphan.

(12) Levorphanol.

(13) Metazocine.

(14) Methadone.

(15) Methadone-Intermediate, 4-cyano-2-dimethylamino-4, 4-diphenyl butane.

(16) Moramide-Intermediate, 2-methyl-3-morpholino-1, 1-diphenylpropane-carboxylic acid.

(17) Pethidine (meperidine).

(18) Pethidine-Intermediate-A, 4-cyano-1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine.

(19) Pethidine-Intermediate-B, ethyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylate.

(20) Pethidine-Intermediate-C, 1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid.

(21) Phenazocine.

(22) Piminodine.

(23) Racemethorphan.

(24) Racemorphan.

(25) Sufentanyl.

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Health & Safety Code § 11055(d)

Stimulants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system:

(1) Amphetamine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts of its optical isomers.

(2) Methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, and salts of its isomers.

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Health & Safety Code § 11055(e)

***

Depressants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a depressant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of those salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

***

(3) Phencyclidines, including the following: (A) 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl) piperidine (PCP). (B) 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl) morpholine (PCM). (C) Any analog of phencyclidine which is added by the Attorney General by regulation pursuant to this paragraph.

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Narcotics Schedule III (Health & Safety Code § 11056)

(a) The controlled substances listed in this section are included in Schedule III.

(b) Stimulants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers (whether optical, position, or geometric), and salts of those isomers whenever the existence of those salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation: (1) Those compounds, mixtures, or preparations in dosage unit form containing any stimulant substances listed in Schedule II which compounds, mixtures, or preparations were listed on August 25, 1971, as excepted compounds under Section 1308.32 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, and any other drug of the quantitative composition shown in that list for those drugs or which is the same except that it contains a lesser quantity of controlled substances. (2) Benzphetamine. (3) Chlorphentermine. (4) Clortermine. (5) Mazindol. (6) Phendimetrazine

(c) Depressants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a depressant effect on the central nervous system: (1) Any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any of the following:  (A) Amobarbital   (B) Secobarbital  (C) Pentobarbital or any salt thereof and one or more other active medicinal ingredients which are not listed in any schedule. (2) Any suppository dosage form containing any of the following:   (A) Amobarbital   (B) Secobarbital   (C) Pentobarbital or any salt of any of these drugs and approved by the federal Food and Drug Administration for marketing only as a suppository. (3) Any substance which contains any quantity of a derivative of barbituric acid or any salt thereof.   (4) Chlorhexadol.   (5) Lysergic acid.   (6) Lysergic acid amide.   (7) Methyprylon.   (8) Sulfondiethylmethane.   (9) Sulfonethylmethane.   (10) Sulfonmethane.   (11) Gamma hydroxybutyric acid, and its salts, isomers and salts of isomers, contained in a drug product for which an application has been approved under Section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. Sec. 355).

(d) Nalorphine.

(e) Narcotic drugs. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing any of the following narcotic drugs, or their salts calculated as the free anhydrous base or alkaloid, in limited quantities as set forth below:   (1) Not more than 1.8 grams of codeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with an equal or greater quantity of an isoquinoline alkaloid of opium.   (2) Not more than 1.8 grams of codeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.   (3) Not more than 300 milligrams of dihydrocodeinone per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with a fourfold or greater quantity of an isoquinoline alkaloid of opium.   (4) Not more than 300 milligrams of dihydrocodeinone per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts. Additionally, oral liquid preparations of dihydrocodeinone containing the above specified amounts may not contain as its nonnarcotic ingredients two or more antihistamines in combination with each other. (5) Not more than 1.8 grams of dihydrocodeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts. (6) Not more than 300 milligrams of ethylmorphine per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts. (7) Not more than 500 milligrams of opium per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams or not more than 25 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.(8) Not more than 50 milligrams of morphine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

(f) Anabolic steroids and chorionic gonadotropin. Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing chorionic gonadotropin or an anabolic steroid (excluding anabolic steroid products listed in the “Table of Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products” (Section 1308.34 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations), as exempt from the federal Controlled Substances Act (Section 801 and following of Title 21 of the United States Code)), including, but not limited to, the following:   (1) Androisoxazole.   (2) Androstenediol.   (3) Bolandiol.   (4) Bolasterone.   (5) Boldenone.   (6) Chlormethandienone.   (7) Clostebol.   (8) Dihydromesterone.   (9) Ethylestrenol.   (10) Fluoxymesterone.   (11) Formyldienolone.   (12) 4-Hydroxy-19-nortestosterone.   (13) Mesterolone.   (14) Methandriol.   (15) Methandrostenolone.   (16) Methenolone.   (17) 17-Methyltestosterone.   (18) Methyltrienolone.   (19) Nandrolone.   (20) Norbolethone.   (21) Norethandrolone.   (22) Normethandrolone.   (23) Oxandrolone.   (24) Oxymestrone.   (25) Oxymetholone.   (26) Quinbolone.   (27) Stanolone.   (28) Stanozolol.   (29) Stenbolone.   (30) Testosterone. (31) Trenbolone.   (32) Chorionic Gonadotropin (HGC).

(g) Ketamine. Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing ketamine.

(h) Hallucinogenic substances. Any of the following hallucinogenic substances: dronabinol (synthetic) in sesame oil and encapsulated in a soft gelatin capsule in a drug product approved by the federal Food and Drug Administration.

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Narcotics Schedule IV (Health & Safety Code § 11057)

(a) The controlled substances listed in this section are included in Schedule IV.

(b) Schedule IV shall consist of the drugs and other substances, by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical name, or brand name designated, listed in this section.

(c) Narcotic drugs. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing any of the following narcotic drugs, or their salts calculated as the free anhydrous base or alkaloid, in limited quantities as set forth below:   (1) Not more than 1 milligram of difenoxin and not less than 25 micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit.   (2) Dextropropoxyphene (alpha-(+)-4-dimethylamino-1, 2-diphenyl-3-methyl-2-propionoxybutane).   (3) Butorphanol.

(d) Depressants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of those salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:   (1) Alprazolam.   (2) Barbital.   (3) Chloral betaine.   (4) Chloral hydrate.   (5) Chlordiazepoxide.   (6) Clobazam.   (7) Clonazepam.   (8) Clorazepate.   (9) Diazepam.   (10) Estazolam.   (11) Ethchlorvynol.   (12) Ethinamate.   (13) Flunitrazepam.   (14) Flurazepam.   (15) Halazepam.   (16) Lorazepam.   (17) Mebutamate.   (18) Meprobamate.   (19) Methohexital.   (20) Methylphenobarbital (Mephobarbital).   (21) Midazolam.   (22) Nitrazepam.   (23) Oxazepam.   (24) Paraldehyde.   (25) Petrichoral.   (26) Phenobarbital.   (27) Prazepam.   (28) Quazepam.   (29) Temazepam.   (30) Triazolam.   (31) Zaleplon.   (32) Zolpidem.

(e) Fenfluramine. Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances, including its salts, isomers (whether optical, position, or geometric), and salts of those isomers, whenever the existence of those salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible:   (1) Fenfluramine.

(f) Stimulants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers (whether optical, position, or geometric), and salts of those isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:   (1) Diethylpropion.   (2) Mazindol.   (3) Modafinil.   (4) Phentermine.   (5) Pemoline (including organometallic complexes and chelates thereof).(6) Pipradrol.   (7) SPA ((-)-1-dimethylamino-1,2-diphenylethane).   (8) Cathine ((+)-norpseudoephedrine).

(g) Other substances. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture or preparation which contains any quantity of pentazocine, including its salts.

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Narcotics Schedule V (Health & Safety Code § 11058)

(a) The controlled substances listed in this section are included in Schedule V.

(b) Schedule V shall consist of the drugs and other substances, by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical name, or brand name designated, listed in this section.

(c) Narcotic drugs containing nonnarcotic active medicinal ingredients. Any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any of the following narcotic drugs, or their salts calculated as the free anhydrous base or alkaloid, in limited quantities as set forth below, which shall include one or more nonnarcotic active medicinal ingredients in sufficient proportion to confer upon the compound, mixture, or preparation valuable medicinal qualities other than those possessed by narcotic drugs alone:   (1) Not more than 200 milligrams of codeine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.   (2) Not more than 100 milligrams of dihydrocodeine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.   (3) Not more than 100 milligrams of ethylmorphine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.   (4) Not more than 2.5 milligrams of diphenoxylate and not less than 25 micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit.   (5) Not more than 100 milligrams of opium per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.   (6) Not more than 0.5 milligram of difenoxin and not less than 25 micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit.

(d) Buprenorphine.

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Health & Safety Code § 11550(b)

(b) Any person who (1) is convicted of violating subdivision (a) when the offense occurred within seven years of that person being convicted of two or more separate violations of that subdivision, and (2) refuses to complete a licensed drug rehabilitation program offered by the court pursuant to subdivision (c), shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for not less than 180 days nor more than one year.  In no event does the court have the power to absolve a person convicted of a violation of subdivision (a) that is punishable under this subdivision from the obligation of spending at least 180 days in confinement in a county jail unless there are no licensed drug rehabilitation programs reasonably available.

For the purpose of this section, a drug rehabilitation program shall not be considered reasonably available unless the person is required to pay no more than the court determines that he or she is reasonably able to pay, in order to participate in the program.

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Health & Safety Code § 11550(c)

(c) The court may, when it would be in the interest of justice, permit any person convicted of a violation of subdivision (a) punishable under subdivision (a) or (b) to complete a licensed drug rehabilitation program in lieu of part or all of the imprisonment in the county jail. As a condition of sentencing, the court may require the offender to pay all or a portion of the drug rehabilitation program.

In order to alleviate jail overcrowding and to provide recidivist offenders with a reasonable opportunity to seek rehabilitation pursuant to this subdivision, counties are encouraged to include provisions to augment licensed drug rehabilitation programs in their substance abuse proposals and applications submitted to the state for federal and state drug abuse funds.

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Health & Safety Code § 11550(e)

Any person under the unlawful influence of the following controlled substances while in the immediate possession of a loaded firearm (including the glove compartment) is guilty of a public offense, punishable by imprisonment in a county jail up to one year or in state prison: Cocaine, cocaine base, heroin, methamphetamine and hencyclidine.

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While we try our best to incorporate and accurately summarize all applicable regulations relating to the use of controlled substances at California Wildlife Areas, we might miss something or make a typo. If so, please help the hunting community by sending a comment or question below.

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