Air Rifles at California Wildlife Areas

Ever wonder if you can use air rifles at California Wildlife Areas that allow firearms to hunt resident small game, like turkey and rabbits? If you ask game wardens, some are likely to say you can only use firearms. It appears the regulations for Type C wildlife areas always allow hunting for resident small game using “air rifle pellet guns,” subject to a few exceptions that relate to area closures, special permits, and conflicts with other laws. Admittedly, you practically need a law degree and years of experience in the field to understand the regulations—that’s where we come in. Warning shot!!! This is not legal advice and some area managers and local game wardens might disagree, especially since “firearm” restrictions appear to exclude other methods of take like air rifles, falconry, crossbows, and traps.

Outline


Introduction

To determine whether the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) allows air rifles at California Wildlife Areas, hunters must have a solid understanding of several terms: 1) Firearms, 2) Propulsive Devices and 3) Methods of Take, plus each kind of weapon the terms include (e.g. pellet guns). As we explain in greater detail below, California hunting regulations generally allow air rifle pellet guns as a method to take resident small game (e.g. Wild Turkeys), but CDFW land use regulations generally prohibit all propulsive devices and generally allow all propulsive devices on land where it designates hunting areas.

The CDFW designates hunting areas on many Type A __, Type B, and Type C Wildlife Areas, and the rules change depending the Type. At Type A and Type B areas, those regulations generally prohibit all methods of take except shotguns (e.g pellet guns). At Type C areas, those regulations specifically allow “all legal firearms and archery equipment” except when an area restricts all firearms or specific firearms (e.g. “No rifles or pistols”); however, those regulation are silent about other propulsive devices (e.g. pellet guns), which can lead hunters to conclude that otherwise legal methods of take (e.g. air rifle pellet guns, falconry, crossbows, and traps) are illegal when a Type C area restricts firearms to “Only shotguns and archery equipment,” for example.

Meanwhile, hunters are accountable for complying with all those rules and regulations–even though they were written by lawyers and appear to be more about law enforcement than for advising hunters. While CDFW land use regulations are difficult enough to interpret, hunting regulations:

(1) Provide no definition or complete list of “firearms,”
(2) Use different terms that might refer to the “air rifle” method the CDFW allows for hunting resident small game (e.g. air guns, gas guns, pellet guns, pellet rifles, and air or gas operated devices),
(3) Sometimes restrict air rifles pellet guns by reference to the Penal Code definition of “BB devices,”
(4) Sometimes allow air rifle BB guns by referring to the CDFW definition without ever defining “air rifles,”
(5) Sometimes imply that the Penal Code definition of “firearms” should restrict the use of air rifle pellet guns at wildlife areas even though there are other Penal Code definitions of “firearms” that include air rifle pellet guns,
(6) Ban the use of lead shot and lead pellets to take wildlife with a firearm without explaining in the regulation that the ban excludes pellet guns, while all other hunting regulations refer to “shotgun shell shot” and air rifles pellets, and
(7) Provide inconsistent opinions through California Outdoors, which the regulations to not identify as as an authority.

So, only through careful analysis of those issues can a hunter determine whether the regulations allow air rifles at California Wildlife Areas.


I. General Prohibition Against “Propulsive Devices”

There are regulations for the general use of all land that the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) owns. Examples include land the CDFW designates as Wildlife Areas_ and Ecological Reserves.__ Those regulations generally prohibit the possession, use, and discharge of all “propulsive devices,” and specifically lumps together methods of take:

1) Firearms (e.g shotguns),
2) Archery equipment,
3) Air or gas operated devices or guns (e.g. pellet guns)
4) Other “propulsive devices” (e.g. crossbows).

Each category includes weapons that California general hunting regulations refer to as “methods of take” (e.g. shotguns, pellet guns, and crossbows), which the CDFW must approve before hunting a particular species of bird or mammal. Those regulations only use the term “propulsive device” on two other occasions, once in reference to Fish and Game Refuges and once in reference to a target shooting site within a wildlife area.[1]  Those regulations don’t define the “propulsive device,” but the dictionary defines “propulsion” as “a means of creating force leading to movement” (e.g. combustion, air pressure, and gas pressure).[2]

So, we need to determine which category would include air rifles at California Wildlife Areas and whether there are any exceptions to the general prohibit on CDFW land.

A. Firearms

The first category that CDFW land use regulations identify is “firearms.” California hunting regulations don’t define “firearms,” but they do have partial descriptions, references to one of the Penal Code definitions, lists of specific firearms, and distinctions from other methods of take. The definition is important because some definitions include air rifles One example is Penal Code § 830.9, which includes air rifles in the definition of “firearms.” As we explain below, these examples tend to support the conclusion the “firearm” restrictions would not apply to air rifles at California Wildlife Areas.

1. Descriptions

California hunting regulations include only two descriptions of a “firearm,” and each tends to support the conclusion that a pellet gun is not a “firearm.” They describe them as a device that expels a projectile through a barrel by force, but neither distinguish between force by combustions and force by air or gas pressure.  The first description is in the ban on using lead projectiles while hunting wildlife with a firearm. It appears the ban would include air rifle pellet guns because the definition of “projectile” in 14 CCR § 250.1 includes “pellets” and fails to distinguish between force of combustion or air pressure:

“A projectile is any bullet, ball, sabot, slug, buckshot, shot, pellet or other device that is expelled from a firearm through a barrel by force.”[3]

However, the ban refers to “pellets” in shotgun shell ammunition and, according to a CDFW opinion, “pellet rifles are not firearms.”[4]  The other description of a “firearm” is similar and relates to taking Big Game with projectiles.[5] Both descriptions tend to support the conclusion that “firearm” restrictions would not apply to air rifles at California Wildlife Areas.

2. Penal Code Definitions

California hunting regulations include three references to one of the Penal Code definitions of a “firearm,” which excludes pellet guns. However, those regulations prohibit firearms while intoxicated, at Fish and Game Refuges, and salvaging bird feathers as Penal Code § 16520 defines “firearm:”[6]

As used in this part, “firearm” means a device, designed to be used as a weapon, from which is expelled through a barrel, a projectile by the force of an explosion or other form of combustion.”

In addition, there are two opinions in which the CDFW applies that Penal Code definition. Both relate to convicted felons, who cannot use or possess a “firearm,” but can still use air rifle pellet guns depending on the terms of probation.[7] However, in the context of animal control, officers can use “firearms” which the  Penal Code § 830.9 includes as “capture guns, blowguns, carbon dioxide operated rifles and pistols, air guns, handguns, rifles, and shotguns.” California hunting regulations rarely, if at all, refer to that definition. On balance, references by the CDFW to the Penal Code definition tends to support the conclusion that “firearm” restrictions would not apply to air rifles at California Wildlife Areas.

3. Specific Firearms

California hunting regulations specifically identify seven methods of take using “firearms,” and none to air rifles:

1) Shotguns,[8]
2) Rifles,[9],
3) Muzzle-loading shotguns,[10],
4) Muzzle-loading rifles,[11]
5) Combination rifle-shotguns,[12],
6) Pistols,[13] and
7) Revolvers.[14]

California hunting regulations never refer to an air rifles one way or the other. Those references tend to support the conclusion that “firearm” restrictions would not apply to air rifles at California Wildlife Areas.

4. Specific Methods of Take

California hunting regulations distinguish “firearms” from five other methods of take:[15] 

1) Archery equipment/gear (bow and arrow),
2) BB devices,
3) Crossbows,
4) Air rifles, and
5) Other propulsive devices.

These distinctions tend to support the conclusion the “firearm” restrictions would not apply to air rifles at California Wildlife Areas.

B. Archery Equipment

The second category that CDFW land use regulations identify is “archery equipment,” which obviously doesn’t include air rifle pellet guns. However, archery equipment includes two “propulsive devices” that are methods of take for most birds and mammals:

1) Bow and arrows and
2) Crossbows with a Disabled Archer’s Permit.[16]

As we explain in more detail below, this tends to support the conclusion that a “firearm” restriction that relates only to “firearms and archery equipment” would not apply to air rifles at California Wildlife Areas.

C. Air or Gas Operated Devices or Guns

The third category that CDFW land use regulations identify is “air or gas operated devices or guns.” California hunting regulations don’t define the term, but it obviously includes air rifle pellet guns, which the regulations and CDFW opinions appear to refers to as:

1) Air guns,[17],
2) Air rifles,[18],
3) 
BB devices,[19]
4) 
BB guns,[20],
5) 
Gas guns, [21] ,
6) 
Pellet guns,[22] and
7) Pellet rifles.[23]

As we explain in more detail below, this tends to support the conclusion that a “firearm” restriction that relates only to “firearms and archery equipment” would not apply to air rifles at California Wildlife Areas.

1. Air Gun and Rifles / Pellet Guns and Rifles

California hunting regulations don’t define “air rifles,” but identifies them as “propulsive devices.” The regulations generally allow “air rifles operated by compressed air or gas as used with any caliber of pellet” as a method or taking resident small game. [24] As used in the regulations and opinions by the CDFW, “air rifles” are commonly referred to as “air guns,” “pellet guns” and “pellet rifles.” As discussed in the next section, the regulations also prohibit certain air rifles at California wildlife areas when using spherical BBs to take wildlife.

2. BB Devices

California hunting regulations don’t define “BB devices,” but three occasions defer to the Penal Code definition which includes both air rifle pellet guns and air rifle BB guns.[25]

“BB device means “any instrument that expels a projectile, such as a BB or a pellet, through the force of air pressure, gas pressure, or spring action, or any spot marker gun.”[26]

3. BB Guns

At some State wildlife areas, California hunting regulations generally allow adult-supervised youth to shoot certain “BB guns,” and defines them as type of “air rifle:”

BB guns are air rifles at California wildlife areas but youth cannot shoot them at wildlife.“A BB gun is defined as an air and/or spring-actuated rifle…firing a spherical BB no larger than 0.177 inches in diameter (4.5 mm) at a muzzle velocity no greater than 350 feet per second.”[27]

The regulations prohibit BB guns at Type A and Type B wildlife areas and note that they are never an authorized method of taking for wildlife.[28] However, the regulations never define air rifles at California wildlife areas.

D. Other Propulsive Devices

Finally, CDFW land use regulations include a default category of hunting methods that include “all other propulsive devices.” California hunting regulations identify several that appear to fit in this category:

1) Crossbows (without a Disabled Archer’ Permit)[29],
2) 
Devices capable of discharging a projectile,
3) Propulsive device of any kind, and
4) Spear guns.[30]

One balance, it appears that a “firearm” restriction which relates only to “firearms and archery equipment” would not apply to air rifles at California Wildlife Areas or restrict other legal methods for hunting resident small game, like crossbows, falconry, and traps.

II. Exception at Designated Hunting Areas

Now that we know CDFW land use regulations generally prohibit air rifles pellet guns under the category of “air or gas operated devices or guns,” we need to determine whether there are any exceptions, which include:[31]

1) Where the CDFW has designated hunting areas,
2) Where the CDFW has designated shooting sites,
3) With a permit from the CDFW,
4) As authorized for dog training in designated area,
5) When fishing with bow and arrow tackle, and
6) When dispatching a trapped animal.

Where the CDFW designates a hunting area, visitors must comply with general hunting regulations, subject to restrictions for State Wildlife Areas in Sections 550, 550.5, 551, and 552. [32] As mentioned above, general hunting regulations only allow certain methods of taking Resident Small Game (e.g. wild turkeys). Those methods—together with several restrictions—are in 14 CCR § 311(f). We also list them below by the categories of CDFW land use regulations. “air rifles powered by air or gas using pellets” clearly falls under the “air or gas operated devices.”

A. Firearms:

1) Shotguns,
2) Muzzle-loading shotguns,
3) Firearm rifles and pistols (only rabbits and tree squirrels), and
4) Pistols and revolvers (only for grouse).

B. Archery Equipment:

1) Bow and arrows and
2) Crossbows with a Disabled Archers Permit.

C. Air or Gas Operated Devices or Guns:

Air rifles powered by air or gas using pellets, i.e. pellet guns,

D. Other Propulsive Devices

Crossbows

E. Other Methods

1) Falconry
2) Box Traps (only for rabbits)
3) Coursing Dogs (only for rabbits)
4) Dogs to take and retrieve.

These methods of take tend to support the conclusion that a “firearm” restriction that relates only to “firearms and archery equipment” would not apply to air rifles at California Wildlife Areas. Otherwise, it would also other legal methods like crossbows, falconry, box traps, and dogs.

III. Prohibitions at Wildlife Areas (Type A and B)

Now that we know CDFW land use regulations generally allow air rifle pellet guns, we need to determine whether there are any restrictions at land where the CDFW designates hunting area, like Wildlife Areas. At Type A and Type B wildlife areas, the regulations specifically prohibit certain methods of take that we list below by the category of CDFW land use regulations:[33] 

Firearms:

1) Rifles,
2) Combination rifle-shotguns,
3) Pistol, and
4) Revolvers.

Archery Equipment:

1) Bow and arrows and
2) Crossbows with a Disabled Archers Permit.

Air or Gas Operated Devices or Guns:

1) Pellet guns and
2) BB guns.

Exceptions to this general rule may be “otherwise provided” in Sections 550, 550.5, 551, or 552. One of the only exceptions is at the Los Banos Wildlife Area, which allows archery equipment during waterfowl and pheasant seasons.[34] It’s clear general prohibition against the use of  “pellet guns” applies to air rifles at California Wildlife Areas (Type A and Type B), but What about Type C areas?

IV. Allowances at Wildlife Areas (Type C)

Where the CDFW designates hunting areas at Type C wildlife areas, the CDFW land use regulations do not prohibit “air or gas operated devices or guns.” As we discuss below, there a few restrictions that relate to closures, special permits, and conflicts with other laws. The regulations specially allow “all legal firearms or archery equipment” except when Section 551(r). Firearm Restrictions on Type C Wildlife Areas restricts them. [35] For “air or gas operated devices or guns,” there are no such references to Section 551(r). This tends to support the conclusion that a “firearm” restriction in Section 551(r) would not apply to air rifles at California Wildlife Areas (Type C).

V. Interpretation of Specific Regulations

Now that it appears a “firearm” restriction in Section 551(r) would not apply to air rifles at California Wildlife Areas (Type C), can we explain the restrictions that relate to closures, special permits, and conflicts with other laws. At first glance, they might appear to contradict the conclusion, but after careful analysis they actually tend to finali the conclusion.ze

A. Areas That Prohibit Air Rifles

1. Sacramento River National Wildlife Refuge

California hunting regulations for the Sacramento River National Wildlife Refuge (Type C) prohibit “air guns.”[36]. How could they do this if CDFW land use regulations always allow air rifles at California Wildlife Areas (Type C)? It’s because it would conflict with federal regulations that prohibit “air guns” at this Refuge without exception. [37][38] Since CDFW land use regulations always allow air rifles at California Wildlife Areas (Type C), the area-specific regulation must prohibit them in Section 551(r).

2. San Luis Obispo Wildlife Area

California hunting regulations for the San Luis Obispo Wildlife (Type C) restrict “firearms and other propulsive devices.”.[39] How could they do this if CDFW land use regulations always allow air rifles at California Wildlife Areas (Type C)? It’s because this area is closed to all uses except the designated shooting site.[40] This is based on the designated shooting site exception to the general prohibition against propulsive devices on CDFW land, not the designated hunting area exception. It has nothing to do with Section 551(r).

3. Santa Rosa Wildlife Area

California hunting regulations for the San Rosa Wildlife Area (Type C) prohibit “all firearms, archery equipment, air and gas guns, spear guns, and other propulsive devices are prohibited” at the Fish and Game Refuge portion that lyes within the Area. See 14 CCR 551(r)(49). How could they do this if CDFW land use regulations always allow air rifles at California Wildlife Areas (Type C)? The restriction is necessary because it conflicts with the regulation that prohibits air guns  Fish and Game Refuges.[41]

B. Areas That Permit Air Rifles

In general, the Daugherty Hill Wildlife Area (Type C) is closed to hunting from February 1 through June 30.[42] There’s an exception for “spring turkey season when only turkeys may be hunting.” To enter the area, a special turkey permit is required for the first nine days.[43] The permit terms allow “only shotguns, archery equipment, and air rifles” are allowed during the spring turkey season. See 14 CCR § 551(r)(11). How could they do this if CDFW land use regulations always allow air rifles at California Wildlife Areas (Type C)? Under the general prohibition against propulsive devices on CDFW land, air rifles would otherwise be prohibited. t’s because this exception is based on the permit from the CDFW.

C. Areas That Only Allow Shotguns and Archery Equipment

There are five Type C wildlife areas where regulations restrict hunting methods in Section 551(r) to “only shotguns and archery equipment.” They include:

1) Bass Hill (Egan Unit),
2) Cottonwood Creek (Lower Unit),
3) Daugherty Hill,
4) Horseshoe Ranch, and
5) Kinsman Flat.

How could they do this if CDFW land use regulations always allow air rifles at California Wildlife Areas (Type C)? These restrictions might appear to exclude “air rifles,” but Section 551(r) only relates to firearms and archery equipment. If the restriction is “only shotguns,” it would also restrict archery equipment under Section 550(cc)(4)(B). If this type of restriction applies to all other legal methods for hunting resident small game, it would restrict the use of air rifles, crossbows, falcons, dogs, and box traps.

D. Areas That Permit Firearms

There are three Type C wildlife areas where the restrictions in Section 551(r) authorize “firearms” and appear to—but do not—exclude “air rifles:”

1) Lake Berryessa Wildlife Area,
2) Lake Earl Wildlife Area, and
3) Lake Sonoma Wildlife Area.

How could they do this if CDFW land use regulations always allow air rifles at California Wildlife Areas (Type C)? At the Lake Earl Wildlife Area, “firearms” are being “permitted” only during waterfowl during waterfowl season, which is actually a restriction Section 551(r)(28). In addition, air rifles are not an authorized method of taking waterfowl.

At Lake Berryessa Wildlife Area and Lake Sonoma Wildlife Area, the regulations require special draw entry permits.[44] The permit terms only allow firearms “for special hunts” per Sections 551(r)(27) and (29). Under the general prohibition against propulsive devices on CDFW land, air rifles would otherwise be prohibited. However, these are actually restrictions but might also be exceptions based on the permit from the CDFW.

In conclusion, CDFW land use regulations always allow air rifles at California Wildlife Areas (Type C) when on areas where the CDFW designates hunting areas, though there a few exceptions based on other exceptions that relate to area closures, special permits, and conflicts with other laws.


FOOTNOTES

[1] See 14 CCR § 551(r)(49) that prohibits “All firearms, archery equipment, air and gas guns, spear guns, and all other propulsive devices” at the Fish and Game Refuge lying within the Santa Rosa Wildlife Area. Also see 14 CCR § 551(v)(3)(B) that states “No firearms or other propulsive devices of any kind” at the San Luis Obispo Wildlife Area, except in the public shooting facility.

[2] See Wikipedia, Nov. 18, 2016, definition of “propulsion.”

[3] See 14 CCR § 250.1(b)(1) and (3) re ban on using shotgun ammunition containing pellets to take wildlife with a firearm.

[4] See Nonlead Ammunition in California re CDFW opinion that the ban on lead ammo excludes pellet used with air rifles to take wildlife.

[5] See 14 CCR § 353(b) re restriction on projectiles for taking big game with a firearm.

[6] See 14 CCR § 3001 re intoxication restriction while taking birds or mammals with firearms, BB devices as defined in Section 16250 of the Penal Code, crossbows, or with bow and arrow. Also see FGC § 10500 re Fish and Game Refuges where it’s illegal to possess or discharge “a firearm, BB device as defined in Section 16250 of the Penal Code, crossbow, bow and arrow, or a trap or other contrivance…” See FGC § 3801.6 re general rule that Native Americans can salvage dead nongame birds except while in possession of “a firearm, BB device as defined in Section 16250 of the Penal Code, trap, snare, net archery equipment, device capable of discharging a projectile.”

[7] See Hunter Ed question regarding a someone with a felony, May 30, 2013, and Can felons legally hunt?, April 22, 2010, re CDFW opinions that felons cannot own “firearms,” but can usually hunt with “air rifles.”

[8] See 14 CCR § 464(c) re “firearms” restriction for taking raccoons after dark with only pistols, rifles, and shotguns.

[9] See 14 CCF § 311(g) re taking rabbits and tree squirrels with “firearm rifles and pistols.”

[10] See 14 CCR § 464(c) re taking resident small game with “muzzle-loading shotguns.”

[11] See 14 CCR § 353(b) re scope permit for visually-impaired hunters to big game with a “muzzleloading rifle.”

[12] See 14 CCR § 550(cc)(4)(B) re general prohibition against using “combination rifle-shotguns” on CDFW land.

[13] See 14 CCF § 311(g) re taking rabbits and tree squirrels with “firearm rifles and pistols.”

[14] See 14 CCF § 311(m) that generally allows taking grouse with “pistols and revolvers.”

[15] See FGC § 10500 re game refuges, 14 CCR § 251(b)(2)(B) re Mobility Disabled Person Motor Vehicle License, and 14 CCR § 265(b)(6)(C) re training dogs on mammals, each of which distinguish “firearms” for other methods of take (e.g. archery equipment, BB devices, and crossbows).

[16] See 14 CCR § 354(a), (b) and (j) defining archery equipment, bows, and crossbows.

[17] See 14 CCR § 551(r)(49) that prohibits all propulsive devices at Fish and Game refuges (e.g. air guns, gas buns, and spear guns).

[18] See 14 CCF § 311(f) that general allows “air rifles powered by compressed air or gas” to take resident small game with pellets.

[19] See 14 CCR § 3001 re intoxication restriction while taking birds or mammals with firearms, BB devices as defined in Section 16250 of the Penal Code, crossbows, or with bow and arrow. Also see FGC § 10500 re Fish and Game Refuges where it’s illegal to possess or discharge “a firearm, BB device as defined in Section 16250 of the Penal Code, crossbow, bow and arrow, or a trap or other contrivance…” See FGC § 3801.6 re general rule that Native Americans can salvage dead nongame birds except while in possession of “a firearm, BB device as defined in Section 16250 of the Penal Code, trap, snare, net archery equipment, device capable of discharging a projectile.”

[20] See 14 CCR § 550(cc)(3) where adult-supervised youth may shoot “BB guns” except at wildlife because it’s not an authorized method of take.

[21] See 14 CCR § 551(r)(49) that prohibits all propulsive devices at Fish and Game refuges (e.g. air guns, gas buns, and spear guns).

[22] See Dove Hunting, August 16, 2012, where CDFW refers to air rifles as “pellet guns.” For additional examples, see Non-lead pellets for squirrels in condor country?, April 18, 2013 and OK to have a firearm onboard while fishing for sturgeon?, February 19, 2015, re CDFW opinions that air rifles and “pellet guns.

[23] See Turkey Hunting with Pellet Rifles?, April 3, 2014, where CDFW refers to air rifles are also known as “pellet rifles.” For additional examples, see Can I hunt with an air rifle and lead pellets in condor country?, January 21, 2010 and Shooting doves with a .22?, August 26, 2016, re CDFW opinions that air rifles are known as “pellet pellets.”

[24] See 14 CCF § 311(f) that generally allows “air rifles powered by compressed air or gas” to take resident small game with pellets.

[25] See 14 CCR § 3001 re intoxication restriction while taking birds or mammals with firearms, BB devices as defined in Section 16250 of the Penal Code, crossbows, or with bow and arrow. Also see FGC § 10500 re Fish and Game Refuges where it’s illegal to possess or discharge “a firearm, BB device as defined in Section 16250 of the Penal Code, crossbow, bow and arrow, or a trap or other contrivance…” See FGC § 3801.6 re general rule that Native Americans can salvage dead nongame birds except while in possession of “a firearm, BB device as defined in Section 16250 of the Penal Code, trap, snare, net archery equipment, device capable of discharging a projectile.”

[26] See Penal Code § 16250 re definition of “BB device.”

[27] See 14 CCR § 550(cc)(3)(C) re definition of a BB gun at State wildlife areas.

[28] See 14 CCR § 550(cc)(4)(B) that general prohibits BB guns at Type A and Type B wildlife areas.

[29] See 14 CCR § 354(a), (b) and (j) defining bows and crossbows as devices that propel arrows and crossbolts.

[30] See 14 CCR § 551(r)(49) that prohibits “All firearms, archery equipment, air and gas guns, spear guns, and all other propulsive devices” at the Fish and Game Refuge lying within the Santa Rosa Wildlife Area. Also see 14 CCR § 551(v)(3)(B) that states “No firearms or other propulsive devices of any kind” at the San Luis Obispo Wildlife Area, except in the public shooting facility.

[31] See 14 CCR § 550(cc)(2) re exceptions to general prohibition against all propulsive devices on CDFW land (e.g. designated hunting sites and shooting sites or with a permit from the CDFW).

[32] See 14 CCR § 550(cc)(2) re designated hunting site exception to general prohibition against all propulsive devices on CDFW land.

[33] See 14 CCR § 550(cc)(4)(B) re general prohibition at Type A and Type B wildlife areas against all propulsive devices except shotguns.

[34] See 14 CCR § 551(u) allowing archery equipment at the Los Banos Wildlife Area.

[35] See 14 CCR § 550(cc)(4)(B) allowing all authorized methods of take (e.g. air rifles for resident small game) except firearms and archery equipment might be prohibited in Section 551(r).

[36] See 14 CCR 552(a)(6)(B) re prohibition of “air guns” at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge—a “Type C” Wildlife Area—where under federal law would allow them.

[37] See 50 CFR § 27.43 re federal regulations that generally prohibit “air guns” unless Part 32 allows them for hunting.

[38] See 50 CFR § 32.24 regulations for the Sacramento River National Wildlife Refuge, which are silent about “air guns,” but 50 CFR § 27.43 prohibits them.

[39] See 14 CCR § 551(o)(53) re closure San Luis Obispo Wildlife Area except for the designated shooting site.

[40] See 14 CCR § 551(v)(3)(A) re prohibition against “firearms and other propulsive devices” except in the designated shooting site.

[41] See FGC § 10500.

[42] See 14 CCR § 551(o)(9) re closure at the Daugherty Hill Wildlife Area. Also see

[43] See 14 CCR § 550.5(c)(5) authorizing the CDFW to require an entry permit by special drawing at Type C wildlife areas, like the Daugherty Hill Wildlife Area in Section 14 CCR § 551(q)(4).

[44] See 14 CCR § 551(q)(9) and (10) that allows only firearms for special hunts at the Lake Berryessa and Lake Sonoma Wildlife Areas.

The regulations almost always allow air rifles at California wildlife areas, Type C only.

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